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Alphabetical Listing of Reference Documents by Title
NOTE: [PDF] links require Acrobat Reader from Adobe.
CAA SECTION 112 NESHAP: Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization and Fumigation Operations
Abstract: APPENDIX 112H of the Clean Air Act that governs EtO for large sources.
Ethylene Oxide Emissions 1999 [PDF]
Abstract: This chart shows the sources of EtO emissions in 1999.
Ethylene Oxide Fact Sheet [PDF]
Abstract: Fact sheet written to give employers the information they need in order to manage staff exposure to EtO.
Evaluation of the Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide (External Review Draft)
Abstract: This draft assessment document characterizes the potential for a carcinogenic health hazard from human inhalation exposure to EtO.
Source: EPA's National Center for Environmental Assessment
FDA-Cleared Sterilants and High Level Disinfectants with General Claims for Processing Reusable Medical and Dental Devices
Abstract: Alternative Disinfectants: A roster of FDA cleared steriliants and high-level disinfectants (HLDs) and conditions for their use.
Source: Food and Drug Administratio (FDA)
Final Regulation Order: Ethylene Oxide Airborne Toxic Control Measure (ATCM)
Abstract: Final rule promulgated in 1999 by CARB shows an example of a state law regulating EtO sources over 25 lbs/year.
Source: California Air Resources Board
Frequently-Asked-Questions about the Reprocessing and Reuse of Single-Use Devices by Third-Party and Hospital Reprocessors
Abstract: If a hospital is reprocessing or having a provider reprocess single use devices as an alternative to using EtO to sterilize reusable devices, this document provides guidance on selecting and evaluating a provider.
Source: Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Guidance for Industry and FDA Staff: for Reprocessed Single-Use Medical [PDF]
Abstract: Website with information regarding regulations for the reprocessing of single-use medical devices (as an alternative to in-house sterilization of durable devices using EtO).
Guidelines for Environmental Infection Control in Health-Care Facilities
Abstract: Recommendations of CDC and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC).
Source: CDC, HICPAC, American Society for Healthcare Engineering/American Hospital Association, vol. 2004
Hospital eTool: Central Supply Module
Abstract: Virtual tour of hospital hazards. Covers the health effects of ethylene oxide gas exposure and options for reducing use.
Infection Control Guidelines
Abstract: This collection of guidelines pertains to keeping patients and healthcare workers in healthcare settings protected from infectious diseases.
Source: Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Infectious Diseases in Healthcare Settings
Abstract: Lists infectious diseases that may be transmitted and/or acquired in healthcare settings and links with suggestions about how to minimize risk for each disease.
Source: Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
NIOSH Alert: Preventing Worker Injuries and Deaths from Explosions in Industrial Ethylene Oxide Sterilization Facilities
Abstract: Website about Ethylene Oxide including; background, industrial sterilization process, safety, current standards, case reports, conclusions, recommendations, abbreviations a glossary and information about occupational illnesses, injuries, and deaths.
Source: National Institute for Occupational and Safety and Health (NIOSH)
Replacing Ethylene Oxide and Glutaraldehyde [PDF]
Abstract: Gives an overview of where EtO and glutaraldehyde are used in hospitals, the reasons to find alternatives and a case study that shows a cost benefit analysis of switching to alternate sterilization/disinfection methods and products.
Rule and Implementation Information for Commercial Sterilizers
Abstract: Website with list of documents regarding the history and status of the EPA rules for commercial sterilizers. Includes Rule Information, Technical Information and Implementation Information.
What Are Antimicrobial Pesticides?
Abstract: Fact sheet describing the categorization of ethylene oxide as a sterilizer in the antimicrobial pesticide group. Links to other resources such as chemical composition and laws affecting the use of these chemicals.
The Topic Hub™ is a product of the Pollution Prevention Resource Exchange (P2Rx)
The P2 for Hospital Sterilizers Topic Hub™ was developed by:
Hub Last Updated: 6/4/2013