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Table of Contents
Background and Overview
Contributing Causes of Global Warming
Impacts of Global Warming
Reasons for Action
Climate Change Solutions
The Individual's Role
Where To Go for Help
Complete List of Links

Agricultural chemicals / Agriculture / Air monitoring / Air pollution / Air quality / Aircraft industry / Alternative fuels / Aluminum / Aluminum industry and trade / Carbon / Carbon dioxide / Carbon monoxide / Carbon tetrachloride / Case studies / Chemicals / Climatic changes / Climatology / Economic impact / Emission control / Emissions / Energy conservation / Energy consumption / Environmental chemistry / Environmental exposure / Environmental health / Environmental management / Forests and forestry / Fossil fuels / Global warming / Government agencies / Green marketing / Greenhouse gases / Hazardous waste / Hazardous waste management / Health / Health effects / Hydrofluorocarbons / Land use / Lean / Lean and environment / Life cycle assessment / Methane / Modeling / Ozone layer / Semiconductors / Steel industry and trade / Temperature control / Tools / Waste / Water supply

Alphabetical Listing of Reference Documents by Title
NOTE: [PDF] links require Acrobat Reader from Adobe.
Abstract: 350 believes in the power of creativity, hard work, and collaboration to make voices heard with little time or resources. The group works to educate and promote activities to increase awareness and keep global GHG emissions below 350 ppm in the atmosphere.

A Business Guide to U.S. EPA Climate Partnership Programs [PDF]
Abstract: This guide, developed in response to requests for the information is designed to help you identify those EPA Partnership Programs that make the most sense for your business and climate stewardship. (PDF)
Source: Environmental Protection Agency

A Corporate Accounting and Reporting Standard , Source: GHG Protocol [PDF]
Abstract: Greenhouse Gas Protocol is a multi-stakeholder and consensus-based partnership of about 170 businesses, non-governmental organizations, governments, to develop internationally accepted GHG accounting and reporting standards for business and to promote their broad adoption convened by the World Resources Institute and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development.
Source: World Business Council for Sustainable Development

As World Warms, Vegetation Changes May Influence Extreme Weather
Abstract: This is believed to be the first study to indicate that as vegetation responds to climate change, those changes in ground cover may affect where and how often extreme weather events occur.
Source: Purdue University

Assessment of the Impacts of Global Change on Regional U.S. Air Quality: A Synthesis of Climate Change Impacts on Ground-Level Ozone
Abstract: Intended for managers and scientists working on air quality to provide information on the potential effects of climate change on regional air quality in the United States.
Source: Environmental Protection Agency

Avoided Emissions from Organic Waste Disposal Offset Project Protocol
Abstract: outlines the process and requirements for Project Proponents to register greenhouse gas emission reductions resulting from voluntarily avoiding emissions from organic waste in landfills
Source: Chicago Climate Exchange

Can Ocean Carbon Uptake Keep Pace with Industrial Emissions?
Abstract: The first observations based on the estimate of the history of anthropogenic carbon uptake by the ocean suggests that the oceans are struggling to keep up with rising emissions.
Source: Goddard Institute for Space Studies

Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage [PDF]
Abstract: Report represents the formally agreed statement of the IPCC concerning current understanding of carbon dioxide capture and storage - which involves separation of CO2 from industrial and energy-related sources - and transfer to long-term isolation from the atmosphere.
Source: International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

Carbon Footprint Calculators
Abstract: Carbon footprint calculators listed here measure impact on the climate. They offer a business and domestic calculator.
Source: Carbon Footprint

Carbon Management and Analysis Platform (CarbonMAP)
Abstract: Designed to aid schools that have completed greenhouse gas inventories in developing long term, comprehensive climate action plans based on those inventories. Requires login.
Source: Clean Air-Cool Planet (CA-CP)

Cement Industry Energy and CO2 Performance
Abstract: This report covers 1990 - 2006 and outlines the "Getting the Numbers Right" system in detail, and shows how an effective measuring, reporting and verification system can be developed and managed for and by industry.
Source: World Business Council for Sustainable Development

Cities for Climate Protection Program
Abstract: ICLEI- Local Governments for Sustainability USA has been identified as one of the 15 most meaningful nonprofit organizations dealing with Climate Change by 139 independent experts through Philanthropedia's research [more]
Source: ICLEI - Local Governments for Sustainability

Climate Action Registry Reporting Online Tool (CARROT)
Abstract: CARROT is the The Climate Registry’s greenhouse gas emission program which includes guidance, built-in emission conversion factors, and standardized reporting software (online).
Source: Climate Action Registry

Climate Action Reserve Landfill Protocol and Landfill Verification Protocols U.S.
Abstract: The Landfill Project Protocol provides guidance to quantify, report, and verify GHG emission reductions associated with installing a landfill gas collection and destruction system at landfill operations. The protocol was first adopted by the Reserve Board
Source: Climate Action Reserve

Climate Action Reserve Organic Waste Digestion ProtocoL
Abstract: Organic Waste Digestion Project Protocol provides an accurate GHG accounting methodology for GHG reduction projects that divert and anaerobically digest eligible organic waste and/or wastewater streams that otherwise would have gone to uncontrolled anaerobic storage, treatment and disposal systems such as solid waste landfills or on-site anaerobic wastewater treatment facilities.
Source: Climate Action Reserve

Climate Calculators for Local Governments
Abstract: A listing of climate calculators are tools that can help cities and counties conduct greenhouse gas (GHG) emission inventories for a specified report year
Source: Cool California

Climate Communications and Behavior Change - A Guide for Practitioners
Abstract: Excellent resource to help communicate the issues, responsibilities, and importance of climate change.
Source: Climate Leadership Initiative

Corporate Strategies that Address Climate Change [PDF]
Abstract: Report provides guidance on strategies such as market shifts and regulatory constraints. Discusses how climate change poses real risks and that companies must plan for today, or risk losing ground to their more forward-thinking competitors.
Source: University of Michigan

Creating Economic Incentives to Conserve Forests Through REDD [PDF]
Abstract: This report discusses economic incentives around Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD). REDD is a policy approach to mitigate carbon emissions from deforestation and conserve tropical biodiversity.
Source: Environmental Defense Fund

Economic Modeling
Abstract: Economic models are an important tool for evaluating the potential impact of proposed legislation on our economy.
Source: Pew Center for Global Climate Change

Effects of Global Warming on Trout and Salmon in U.S. Streams [ [PDF]
Abstract: Dams, water diversions, pollution, and development threaten trout and salmon, which have already disappeared from many of the streams they once inhabited. Climatic warming poses an additional, potentially severe threat to their survival.
Source: Natural Resources Defense Council

Emissions Scenarios
Abstract: These scenarios cover a wide range of the main driving forces of future emissions, from demographic to technological and economic developments. They encompass different future developments that might influence GHG sources and sinks, such as alternative structures of energy systems and land-use changes.
Source: International Panel on Climate Change

Energy for America's Future
Abstract: Details current White House policy on energy security and confronting climate change.
Source: White House

EPA’s Green Power Partnership
Abstract: This voluntary program that supports the organizational procurement of green power by offering expert advice, technical support, tools and resources.
Source: EPA

EPA's Energy Star CFL alculator
Abstract: ENERGY STAR's CFL calculator helps users quantify the possible energy savings by switching from incandescent to CFLs.
Source: Environmental Protection Agency

EPA's Household Emissions Calculator
Abstract: This online calculator provides a “ballpark” estimate of personal or family’s greenhouse gas emissions - and allows the user to explore the impact of taking various actions to reduce emissions.
Source: EPA

Feedback Loops In Global Climate Change Point To A Very Hot 21st Century
Abstract: Studies have shown that global climate change can set-off positive feedback loops in nature which amplify warming and cooling trends.
Source: Science Daily

Future Temperature Changes
Abstract: Learn how quickly the Earth's temperature will increase remains unknown given the uncertainty of future greenhouse gas, aerosol emissions and the Earth's response to changing conditions.
Source: Environmental Protection Agency

Global Warming - F.A.Q. - National Climatic Data Center
Abstract: Frequently asked questions on global warming, provided by NOAA's National Climate Data Center. Based on a synopsis of the 2007 Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and the Center's data.
Source: National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration

Global Warming Potential
Abstract: Global Warming Potential (GWP) is a measure of the potency of different greenhouse gases with that of CO2.
Source: Carbon Offset Research and Education CORE

Green Building for Cool Cities
Abstract: Re-energize your Cool City with our new "Green Building for Cool Cities" project in partnership with the U.S. Green Building Council. Making new and retrofitted buildings more energy-efficient is a key solution to global warming and to achieving the transition to a clean energy economy.
Source: U.S. Green Building Council

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Ag
Abstract: Article on agricultural production systems tells how they generate greenhouse gases.
Source: Friendly Farming, Washington State University

Greenhouse Gas Equivalencies Calculator
Abstract: This equivalencies calculator helps you understand just that, translate abstract measurements into concrete terms , such as this reduction in GHG emissions is"equivalent to avoiding the carbon dioxide emissions of 183,000 cars annually."
Source: Environmental Protection Agency

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Forest and Agricultural Lands: Reducing Emissions
Abstract: Article discusses GHGs relating to agricultural activities and land use.
Source: University of Florida IFAS description

Greenhouse Gases - Frequently Asked Questions
Abstract: Answers to common questions about how and why global warming is occurring.
Source: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Guide to Energy Efficiency in Aluminum Smelters
Abstract: The aluminum industry is a significant energy consumer and seeks ways to reduce energy consumption and achieve better performance. This document describes efforts and opportunities.
Source: Natural Resources Canada

HOT CLIMATE, COOL COMMERCE: Service Sector Guide to Greenhouse Gas Management
Abstract: Ensures that service-sector companies develop effective climate change response strategies that are compatible with both others in the business community and voluntary and mandatory climate change programs.
Source: World Resources Institute, Climate Analysis Indicators

Human Health (Climate Institute Core Issues)
Abstract: Researchers have found a close link between local climate and the occurrence or severity of some diseases and other threats to human health.
Source: Climate Institute

Improving Efficiency of Coal-Fired Power Plants for Near Term CO2 Reductions [PDF]
Abstract: NETL has evaluated the opportunity to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants as a way to reduce GHG emissions.
Source: National Energy Technology Lab (NETL)

IPCC - Climate Change 2007 (The Fourth IPCC Assessment Report)
Abstract: The IPCC provides assessment reports in regular intervals, on the global state and knowledge of climate change. This is the fourth report.
Source: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

IPCC - Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Abstract: The IPCC assesses the scientific, technical and socio-economic information relevant for the understanding of the risk of human-induced climate change.
Source: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

IPCC - Part I: Second Assessment Synthesis of Scientific-Technical Information Relevant to Interpreting Article 2 of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change [PDF]
Abstract: The ultimate object of Article 2 of the UNFCCC is the stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Such a level should be achieved within a timeframe sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner”.
Source: International Panel on Climate Change

IPCC - Part II: Report of Working Group I, the Science of Climate Change, with a Summary for Policymakers (Summary) [PDF]
Abstract: Considerable progress has been made in the understanding of climate change1 science since 1990 and new data and analyses have become available.
Source: International Panel on Climate Change

IPCC - Part III: Report of Working Group II, Scientific-Technical Analyses of Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change, with SPM [PDF]
Abstract: Review of current (1995) knowledge of the impacts of climate change on physical and ecological systems, human health and socioeconomic sectors. Also includes available information on technical and economic feasibility of a range of potential adaptation and mitigation strategies.
Source: International Panel on Climate Change

IPCC - The Fourth Assessment Report: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability [PDF]
Abstract: Formally agreed statement of the IPCC concerning the sensitivity, adaptive capacity and vulnerability of natural and human systems to climate change, and the potential consequences of climate change.
Source: International Panel on Climate Change

IPCC - The Fourth Assessment Report: The Mitigation of Climate Change
Abstract: Focuses on the environmental, economic and social aspects of mitigation of climate change.
Source: International Panel on Climate Change

IPCC Third Assessment Report: Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability
Abstract: Comprehensive scientific assessment of the consequences of, and adaptation responses to, climate change.
Source: International Panel on Climate Change

IPCC Third Assessment Report: Climate Change 2001: Mitigation
Abstract: The assessment of the scientific, technical, environmental, economic, and social aspects of the mitigation of climate change.
Source: International Panel on Climate Change

IPCC Third Assessment Report: Climate Change 2001: Synthesis Report [PDF]
Abstract: The Synthesis Report is a policy-relevant, but not policy-prescriptive, synthesis and integration of information contained within the Third IPCC Assessment Report.
Source: International Panel on Climate Change

Kyoto Protocol Signatories
Abstract: 187 states have signed and ratified the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, aimed at combating global warming.
Source: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

Local Government Operations Protocol
Abstract: A consortium of environmental organizations developed the Local Government Operations (LGO) Protocol, a program-neutral protocol designed to allow local governments to quantify and report GHG emissions resulting from their operations.
Source: Environmental Protection Agency/Air Resources Board

Methane Avoidance from Composting
Abstract: Developing a GHG reduction project protocol for organic waste composting projects will provide a standardized approach for quantifying and monitoring GHG reductions from projects that avoid methane emissions through the diversion and composting of municipal food waste that would otherwise have been sent to a landfill.
Source: Climate Action Reserve

National Wildlife Federation's Green Energy Calculator
Abstract: The National Wildlife Federation has created a calculator to tell you how much carbon dioxide your lifestyle produces.
Source: National Wildlife Federation

New England Regional Assessment
Abstract: This document provides the basis for continued work to produce a New England Regional Assessment (NERA) on climate variability and change.
Source: The University of New Hampshire

Ocean Acidification
Abstract: The ocean absorbs approximately 1/4 of the CO2 added to the atmosphere from human activities each year. When CO2 dissolves in seawater, acidification occurs, decreasing the ability of many marine organisms to build shells and maintain skeletal structure.
Source: Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) and the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (UNESCO-IOC)

Office Carbon Footprint Tool Calculator (WasteWise)
Abstract: This tool was created for office-based organizations ("offices") located in the United States to assist offices in making decisions to reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with their activities. This tool will allow the user to develop an estimate of their GHG emissions from a variety of sources including company-owned vehicle transportation; purchased electricity; waste disposal; and leased assets, franchises, and outsourced activities
Source: Environmental Protection Agency

Overview and Examples of Climate Action Plans
Abstract: The President's Climate Commitment for colleges and universities, provides for coordinated planning to make campuses carbon-neutral, reduce global warming impacts, and drive the scientific innovation and public education necessary to catalyze rapid change.
Source: American College & University - Presidents’ Climate Commitment

Product Life Cycle Accounting and Reporting Standard
Abstract: Developed by multi-stakeholder partners, this guidance provides a standard for companies and other organizations to prepare a GHG inventory of emissions associated with a product.
Source: World Resources Institute and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development

Products, Packaging and U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions [PDF]
Abstract: Stolaroff (author), builds on an EPA report on reducing GHGs through materials and land management - including impact of products and packaging. His analysis indicates non-food products and packaging make up 44% of U.S. GHG emissions.
Source: Product Policy Institute

Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD)
Abstract: Deforestation accounts for about 18 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions—larger than the entire global transportation sector.The REDD Options Assessment Report suggests a flexible, three-phase approach to policy measures and positive incentives in order to accommodate conservation, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks; and (iii) the near-term constraints of the current global financial crisis.
Source: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC

Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships
Abstract: DOE has a network of seven partnerships to help develop the technology, infrastructure, and regulations to implement large-scale CO2 sequestration in different regions and geologic formations.
Source: U.S. Department of Energy

Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative
Abstract: The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) is the first mandatory, market-based effort in the United States to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Ten Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic states have capped and will reduce CO2 emissions from the power sector 10% by 2018.
Source: Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative

Safeguarding the Ozone Layer and the Global Climate System: Issues Related to Hydrofluorocarbons and Perfluorocarbons [PDF]
Abstract: This IPCC Special Report - offers a balanced scientific, technical, and policy relevant report regarding alternatives to ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) that affect the global climate system.
Source: International Panel on Climate Change

Seattle Climate Partnership
Abstract: Twelve Seattle-area employers have come together to develop and grow a partnership that aims to meet or beat the global warming pollution reduction target of the Kyoto Protocol. In addition, they are developing a suite of services for participating employers, including a robust technical assistance program, networking services, and a recognition program.
Source: City of Seattle

Smart Grid - 5 Cities Leading the Way
Abstract: Power lines spread across the country are finally moving into the digital age with smart grids that provide instant information on energy consumption. Briefly presents examples of smart grid implementation in five U.S. cities.
Source: Huffington Post

The Climate Registry
Abstract: Nonprofit collaboration among North American states, provinces, territories and sovereign nations that sets consistent and transparent standards to calculate, verify and publicly report GHG into a single registry.
Source: Climate Registry Board of Directors

The Impact of Climate Change on Human Health
Abstract: The core concern is succinctly stated: climate change endangers health in fundamental ways.
Source: World Health Organization

The Potential Impacts Of Global Warming On America's Forests
Abstract: Critical findings are presented for forest lands from the first national assessment of the potential consequences of climate variability and change. (Overview by Janine Bloomfield, Ph.D.)
Source: Environmental Defense, NRDC, Others

The State of California's Climate Change Portal
Abstract: Provides many links to state reports on climate change mitigation and adaptation options.
Source: California Energy Commission

Top Ten Smart Grid
Abstract: What companies are leading the charge toward a smart grid of the future? And, who are the utilities that are taking the lead in giving them a market? We’ve broken down the smart grid sector into a number of broad components areas – smart meter manufacturing, neighborhood-area meter networking and communication, in-home energy management, demand response, meter data management, other smart grid software and services, and the broader role of integrating these areas.
Source: Greentechgrid

U.S EPA Residential Energy Efficiency
Abstract: This program shows effective ways to reduce home energy consumption. Topics include insulation, windows, doors, weather-stripping, and caulking. The expert system feature allows users to calculate how much they will save by making their homes more energy efficient.
Source: Environmental Protection Agency

U.S. Climate Policy and Actions
Abstract: Describes current U.S. policy regarding climate change.
Source: Environmental Protection Agency

U.S. EPA - Climate Economics
Abstract: EPA conducts climate economic analyses to estimate the economic and environmental effects of potential domestic climate change mitigation programs and strategies
Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

U.S. EPA - Global Warming Site
Abstract: EPA's Climate Change Site offers comprehensive information on the issue of climate change in a way that is accessible and meaningful to all parts of society – communities, individuals, business, states and localities, and governments.
Source: Environmental Protection Agency

U.S. EPA - PFC Reduction / Climate Partnership for the Semiconductor Industry
Abstract: EPA’s technical report describes PFC-based (perfluorinated compounds) heat transfer fluids, their common uses in electronics manufacturing, and estimated emissions to the atmosphere. PFCs are potent GHGs, often thousands of times stronger than CO2, and some can persist for 2,000 years.
Source: Environmental Protection Agency

U.S. EPA Climate Leaders
Abstract: Climate Leaders was an EPA industry-government partnership that worked with companies to develop climate change strategies. The website remains active and offers a useful GHG calculator and case studies.
Source: Environmental Protection Agency

U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report
Abstract: Information on greenhouse gas emission inventories, an introduction to climate change, a discussion of methodological issues and plans for QA/QC and an uncertainty analysis
Source: Environmental Protection Agency

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) - Climate Change
Abstract: This is UNEP's resource on climate change.
Source: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
Abstract: Online newsletter concerning issues on and about the U.N.'s convention on long-term climate change.
Source: United Nations Climate Change Conference

United States Global Research Program - Agriculture [PDF]
Abstract: Climate change clearly affects agriculture, climate is also affected by agriculture, which contributes 13.5 percent of all human-induced greenhouse gas emissions.
Source: United States Global Research Program

United States Global Research Program - Key Findings
Abstract: Presents key findings: Global warming is unequivocal and primarily human-induced; widespread climatic impacts are occurring and are likely to increase. Water resources, crop and livestock production, and many other activities will be challenged..
Source: United States Global Research Program

Unlocking Energy Efficiency in the U.S. Economy
Abstract: Report offers a detailed analysis of the magnitude of the efficiency potential in non-transportation uses of energy, a thorough assessment of barriers, and an outline of practical solutions.
Source: McKinsey & Company

US EPA Final Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Rule
Abstract: Rule requires reporting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from large sources and suppliers in the U.S. and intendeds to collect accurate and timely emissions data to inform future policy decisions.
Source: US EPA

Washington State Department of Ecology - Climate Change
Abstract: Washington State isn't waiting to see what happens with climate change. See what they are doing to reduce emissions, prepare for impacts, and to grow a clean energy economy.
Source: Washington State Department of Ecology

White House Council on Environmental Quality
Abstract: Our focus ensures strong science and policy basis for U.S. environmental policy, to move the nation to greater reliance on clean energy and increase energy security, to combat global warming while growing the green economy, to protect public health and the environment, especially in vulnerable communities, and to protect and restore ecosystems.
Source: U.S. White House

Working 9 to 5 on Climate Change: An Office Guide [PDF]
Abstract: Introduction to climate change and the ways offices contribute to the global problem; and steps/suggestions for measuring and reducing carbon emissions at the office.
Source: World Resources Institute

World Meteorological Organization
Abstract: Specialized agency of the United Nations - an authoritative voice on the state and behaviour of the Earth's atmosphere, its interaction with the oceans, the climate it produces and the resulting distribution of water resources.
Source: World Meteorological Organization


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Hub Last Updated: 4/28/2015