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Table of Contents
Background and Overview
Reasons for Action
Identifying Chemical Hazards - Labeling Systems
Related Efforts, Tools, and Resources
Case Studies and Examples
Where to Go for Help
Complete List of Links

Alternative technologies / Assessment / Best management practices / Chemical engineering / Chemical industry / Chemical spills / Chemical tracking / Chemical treatment / Chemicals / Chemistry / Cleaning compounds / Coating processes / Coatings / Disinfection and disinfectants / Energy conservation / Environmental chemistry / Environmental degradation / Environmental exposure / Environmental health / Environmental management / Environmental protection / Environmentally safe products / Health / Health effects / Incentives / Lean and environment / Paint / Products / Solvents / Toxic chemicals / Toxic release inventory / Toxicity / Toxicity testing / Toxicology / Wood / Wood waste

Alphabetical Listing of Reference Documents by Title
NOTE: [PDF] links require Acrobat Reader from Adobe.

2025 Safer Chemistry Challenge Program [PDF]
Abstract: Designed to motivate, challenge, and reward U.S. facilities to reduce use of chemicals through sources reduction.
Source: National Pollution Prevention Roundtable

Alternatives Assessment Framework of the Lowell Center for Sustainable Production [PDF]
Abstract: Framework designed to evaluate and identify environmentally and sociall preferable alternatives in production, chemicals, materials, products, and economic systems. Core elements include a foundation, assessment process, and evaluation.
Source: Lowell Center for Sustainable Production

An Abbreviated Alternatives Assessment Process for Product Designers
Abstract: A crib manufacturer assessed alternatives to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in their baby crib line, by evaluating constituents of 4 mattresses/3 mattress covers - for human and environmental hazards. They replaced all PVC-based components.
Source: Journal of Cleaner Production

Assessment of Alternatives to Perchloroethylene for the Dry Cleaning Industry
Abstract: Alternatives assessment of seven common alternatives to perc to help dry cleaners find technically viable and environmentally preferred methods for cleaning clothes
Source: TURI

Chemicals Prioritization: An Approach by the American Chemistry Council (ACC)
Abstract: The American Chemistry Council's (ACC)'s approach to prioritizing chemicals is used to identify priority substances that should be further evaluated and could lead to risk management measures. The ACC's approach is both science and risk-based, and utilizes existing data used by industry and regulation.
Source: American Chemistry Council

DuPont: Proposed Alternatives Assessment Framework [PDF]
Abstract: DuPont's approach to their chemical selection is based on pressure from society to make decisions based on more than just regulations.
Source: California Department of Toxic Substances Control

Energy and Materials Flow and Cost Tracker (EMFACT)
Abstract: EMFACT is a software tool designed to track materials and energy use, releases, discharges, wastes, products, and associated costs. The program provides a template where the user can input measurement data and generate calculations and reports.
Source: Northeast Waste Management Officials' Association

Environmental Accounting: Environmental Protection Agency
Abstract: Case studies show how environmental accounting can help companies identify areas of efficiency-enhancing opportunity, as well as justify the need to switch to environmentally friendly materials.
Source: Environmental Protection Agency

Environmental Accounting: Total Cost Accounting
Abstract: The Total Cost Accounting tool was designed for environmental professionals and other "non-accountant" industry personnel. It helps the user understand the impact of environmental costs to their business, provides instruction on comparing the cost of different processes, and provides a tool for communicating costs and benefits of pollution prevention to management.
Source: Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission and U.S. EPA

Environmental Profiles of Chemical Flame-Retardant Alternatives for Low-Density Polyurethane Foam
Abstract: Report from the U.S. EPA Dfe effort to evaluate and identify safer alternatives to brominated flame retardants in furniture foam.
Source: U.S. EPA Design for Environment

Environmentally Benign Resins and Additives, for Use in the Wire and Cable Industry
Abstract: Results of a research project on the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of using alternative resins to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in the wire and cable industry
Source: Toxics Use Reduction Institute

Evaluating Flame Retardants for TV Enclosures [PDF]
Abstract: As a test case for the GreenScreenTM tool, four flame retardants were evaluated using the four GreenScreenTM criteria. One flame retardant was identified as the safer alternative of the four.
Source: Clean Production Action

Examples of Alternatives Assessments
Abstract: List of applied examples of research and/or adoption of safer chemical alternatives.
Source: Interstate Chemicals Clearinghouse (IC2)

Abstract: Good Guide is a products database designed to provide authoritative, ranked information about health, environmental and societal performance of products and companies.
Source: GoodGuide

Green Chemistry and Commerce Council (GC3)
Abstract: GC3 provides a business-to-business forum to convene on the challenges and opportunities for a successful transition to safer alternatives. They facilitate workgroups, host webinars, and provide other information.
Source: Green Chemistry and Commerce Council

Growing the Green Economy Through Green Chemistry and Design for the Environment
Abstract: This guide, developed by the Green Chemistry Commerce Council and the National Pollution Prevention Roundtable, will help state governments promote green practices, create green opportunities, and move national policy forward by providing options for promoting research, development, and use of GC and DfE to reduce hazardous chemicals in manufacturing.
Source: Washington Department of Ecology
URL: (Toys)
Abstract: has tested thousands of toys since 2007. Test results provide customers with information they need to make better choices when purchasing toys and other children's products.

ICCA Chemical Risk Assessment Guide [PDF]
Abstract: This article provides a step-by-step approach to Chemical Risk Assessment. The article begins with showing the reader how to gather the information needed in order to conduct the risk assessment. The article further demonstrates how to perform the risk assessment and communicate the outcome.
Source: International Council of Chemical Associations

Labelling for Hazardous Communication
Abstract: An explanation, from Lab Safety Supply, on chemical hazard labelling, including ratings, exemptions, training, and which label is right for different situations and chemicals.
Source: Lab Safety Supply

Lean and Chemicals Toolkit
Abstract: This is the fifth of five Lean and Environment Toolkits, published by EPA, covering addressing and reducing chemicals at manufacturing facilities using lean manufacturing strategies.
Source: U.S. EPA Lean and Environment

Partnership to Evaluate Flame Retardants in Printed Circuit Boards [PDF]
Abstract: The EPA DfE program conducted a collaborative and detailed alternatives assessment to help identify safer substitutes for chemical flame retardants used in printed circuit boards (PCBs). The reports 14 formulations of flame-retardant products that would be safer alternatives to commercially available pentabromodiphenyl ether (pentaBDE).
Source: U.S. EPA Design for Environment

Pesticides: International Activities Regarding the Globally Harmonized System (GHS)
Abstract: GHS specifies certain elements such as hazard statements, pictograms, and signal words to be required on pesticide labels. Precautionary statements are required on all labels. GHS implementation will require extensive outreach, education, and training.
Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Skin Deep Cosmetics Database
Abstract: EWG's Skin Deep database provides online safety profiles for consumer cosmetics and personal care products.
Source: Environmental Working Group

Textile Industry: New Standards Based on Environment, Health, and Safety
Abstract: Bluesign's textile process involves identifying and excluding hazardous materials from the beginning of its process, ensuring economic success and maximum consumer and environmental protection.
Source: Bluesign

Toxics Use Reduction Institute: Journal of Cleaner Production Articles, March 2011
Abstract: Annotated bibliography of articles in the March 2011 special issue of the Journal of Cleaner Production, which includes several articles discussing safer alternatives selection and implementation.
Source: Toxics Use Reduction Institute

Twelve Principals of Green Chemistry
Abstract: The 12 Principals of Green Chemistry, publised by EPA Assistant Administrator Paul Anastas, Ph.D. and John Warner, Ph.D., provides a roadmap for chemists to implement green chemistry.
Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

U.S. EPA Design for the Environment (DfE) Assessment of Bisphenol A (BPA)
Abstract: Synopsis of the processes, results of an in-depth, multi-stakeholder alternatives assessment to help identify safer substitutes for bisphenol A (BPA) in the manufacture of thermal paper (e.g., cash-register receipts).
Source: U.S. EPA

Wire and Cable Applications: Alternatives
Abstract: TURI and GC3 are working to evaluate safe alternatives to phthalates in wire and cable applications. Based on the results of QCAT, three plasticizers have been selected for full assessment using GreenSreen: DOZ, TEHTM, and DINCH.
Source: Toxics Use Reduction Institute


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Hub Last Updated: 5/21/2015