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Table of Contents
Background and Overview
Reasons for Action
Identifying Chemical Hazards - Labeling Systems
Related Efforts, Tools, and Resources
Case Studies and Examples
Where to Go for Help
Complete List of Links

Alternative technologies / Assessment / Best management practices / Chemical engineering / Chemical industry / Chemical spills / Chemical tracking / Chemical treatment / Chemicals / Chemistry / Cleaning compounds / Coating processes / Coatings / Disinfection and disinfectants / Energy conservation / Environmental chemistry / Environmental degradation / Environmental exposure / Environmental health / Environmental management / Environmental protection / Environmentally safe products / Health / Health effects / Incentives / Lean and environment / Paint / Products / Solvents / Toxic chemicals / Toxic release inventory / Toxicity / Toxicity testing / Toxicology / Wood / Wood waste

Alphabetical Listing of Reference Documents by Title
NOTE: [PDF] links require Acrobat Reader from Adobe.

2012 Levi Strauss & Co. Restricted Substance List [PDF]
Abstract: Levi Strauss & Co.'s restricted list of substances for suppliers.
Source: Levi Strauss & Co.

Alternative Degreaser
Abstract: A refrigerator company replaced trichloroethylene with an aqueous solution and new parts washer, saving $36,000/year.
Source: Zero Waste Network

Alternatives Assessment Framework of the Lowell Center for Sustainable Production [PDF]
Abstract: Framework designed to evaluate and identify environmentally and sociall preferable alternatives in production, chemicals, materials, products, and economic systems. Core elements include a foundation, assessment process, and evaluation.
Source: Lowell Center for Sustainable Production

An Abbreviated Alternatives Assessment Process for Product Designers
Abstract: A crib manufacturer assessed alternatives to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in their baby crib line, by evaluating constituents of 4 mattresses/3 mattress covers - for human and environmental hazards. They replaced all PVC-based components.
Source: Journal of Cleaner Production

Cleaner Solutions Database
Abstract: Database with solutions for surface cleaning, allowing users to find a cleaner, replace a solvent, and conduct safety screening.
Source: Toxics Use Reduction Institute

Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool (EPEAT)
Abstract: An organization that developed green electronics standards and maintains a definitive global registry for greener electronics products that meet these EPEAT standards.
Source: Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool

Environmental Profiles of Chemical Flame-Retardant Alternatives for Low-Density Polyurethane Foam
Abstract: Report from the U.S. EPA Dfe effort to evaluate and identify safer alternatives to brominated flame retardants in furniture foam.
Source: U.S. EPA Design for Environment

Environmentally Benign Resins and Additives, for Use in the Wire and Cable Industry
Abstract: Results of a research project on the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of using alternative resins to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in the wire and cable industry
Source: Toxics Use Reduction Institute

Evaluating Flame Retardants for TV Enclosures [PDF]
Abstract: As a test case for the GreenScreenTM tool, four flame retardants were evaluated using the four GreenScreenTM criteria. One flame retardant was identified as the safer alternative of the four.
Source: Clean Production Action

Examples of Alternatives Assessments
Abstract: List of applied examples of research and/or adoption of safer chemical alternatives.
Source: Interstate Chemicals Clearinghouse (IC2)

Abstract: Good Guide is a products database designed to provide authoritative, ranked information about health, environmental and societal performance of products and companies.
Source: GoodGuide

Green Chemistry and Commerce Council (GC3)
Abstract: GC3 provides a business-to-business forum to convene on the challenges and opportunities for a successful transition to safer alternatives. They facilitate workgroups, host webinars, and provide other information.
Source: Green Chemistry and Commerce Council

Green Product Design Network (GPDN)
Abstract: GPDN is a network of partners in industry, government, and NGO's with an interest in inventing sustainable products that can be readily adopted into our larger society. GPDN has been selected as one of the key projects that the University of Oregon is supporting as a major strategic initiative.
Source: Green Product Design Network (GPDN)

GreenScreen(TM) (Version 1.2)
Abstract: A systematic chemical screening tool to identify substances that are inherently less hazardous. The tool uses many green chemistry principles, compiling toxicity endpoint data, and defines four benchmarks with a progressively safer chemical.
Source: Clean Production Action
URL: (Toys)
Abstract: has tested thousands of toys since 2007. Test results provide customers with information they need to make better choices when purchasing toys and other children's products.

Household Products Database
Abstract: Searchable database listing thousands of consumer products, ingredients, and hazard ratings for ingredients.
Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’

How to Design a Safer Chemical
Abstract: Discussion of how synthetic chemists and toxicologists need to work together in designing new chemicals and molecules.

Interstate Chemicals Clearinghouse (IC2) Safer Alternatives Assessments
Abstract: A wiki designed to provide a dynamic tool for the developing field of alternatives assessment.
Source: Northeast Waste Management Officials Association

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Frequently Asked Questions
Abstract: Answers to common questions about the NFPA 704 chemical safety rating system.
Source: National Fire Protection Association

Nike Restricted Substances List and Sustainable Chemistry Guidance
Abstract: Corporate restricted substance list for every material used in Nike products, and implementation guide.
Source: Nike, Inc.

Partnership to Evaluate Flame Retardants in Printed Circuit Boards [PDF]
Abstract: The EPA DfE program conducted a collaborative and detailed alternatives assessment to help identify safer substitutes for chemical flame retardants used in printed circuit boards (PCBs). The reports 14 formulations of flame-retardant products that would be safer alternatives to commercially available pentabromodiphenyl ether (pentaBDE).
Source: U.S. EPA Design for Environment

Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products as Pollutants (PCPP)
Abstract: Information on PPCPs, their environmental impacts, ongoing research, and environmental stewardship opportunities.
Source: Environmental Protection Agency

Pollution Prevention Options Assessment System (P2OASys)
Abstract: This systematic tool helps companies determine compare toxicity and hazard of replacement or substitution options they are considering.
Source: Toxics Use Reduction Institute (TURI)

Prevention through Design
Abstract: A protocol on preventing workplace exposures and accidents through the design of better products and processes at the earliest possible point in the life cycle.
Source: National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health

REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemical Substances)
Abstract: Manufacturers and importers are required to gather information on the properties of their chemical substances, which will allow their safe handling, and to register the information in a central database run by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA).
Source: European Union

REACH Restricted Substances List (RSL)
Abstract: REACH Annex XVII places restrictions on certain hazardous substances on use in a specific product are not allowed to be used, to avoid any unnecessary testing. Typical hazardous substances that are restricted in products include lead, AZO dyes, DMF, PAHs, Phthalates, and PFOS.
Source: REACH

Skin Deep Cosmetics Database
Abstract: EWG's Skin Deep database provides online safety profiles for consumer cosmetics and personal care products.
Source: Environmental Working Group

The Retailer Portal: Tools to Evaluate Chemical Ingredients in Products [PDF]
Abstract: A pending database and summary document designed to help retailers become educated about the tools and systems available to evaluate and manage chemical ingredients in products.
Source: Green Chemistry and Commerce Council

Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and Other Environmental Impacts (TRACI)
Abstract: TRACI allows for the examination of the potential for life cycle impacts (including toxicity) associated with raw material usage and chemical releases resulting from the processes involved in producing a product.
Source: US EPA, National Risk Management Research Laboratory

Toxics Use Reduction Institute: Journal of Cleaner Production Articles, March 2011
Abstract: Annotated bibliography of articles in the March 2011 special issue of the Journal of Cleaner Production, which includes several articles discussing safer alternatives selection and implementation.
Source: Toxics Use Reduction Institute

U.S. EPA Design For Environment - Alternative Assessments
Abstract: This collaborative program helps industries choose safer chemicals for applications such as fire safety in circuit boards and furniture. Alternatives assessments provide a basis for informed decision making by developing an in-depth comparison of potential human health and environmental impacts.
Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Use of DecaBDE Flame Retardants in Plastic Shipping Pallets: Assessing Safer Alternatives [PDF]
Abstract: Maine DEP sponsored a study assessing the availability of safer alternatives to the use of decaBDE in plastic shipping pallets. Pure Strategies (consultant) and pallet manufacturers, along with the state, conducted the study, which included functionality and physical property & fire testing as well as reduced environmental impact of any alternative flame retardants.
Source: Northeast Waste Management Official's Association

VOC Reduction at ESP Lock Products, Inc. [PDF]
Abstract: ESP Lock products replaced highly volatile lubricating oils use in making key blanks, with a non-VOC lubricant and began using ultra-low volume misting units. They saved on materials, and eliminated air quality and flammable compliance requirements.
Source: Toxics Use Reduction Institute

Wire and Cable Applications: Alternatives
Abstract: TURI and GC3 are working to evaluate safe alternatives to phthalates in wire and cable applications. Based on the results of QCAT, three plasticizers have been selected for full assessment using GreenSreen: DOZ, TEHTM, and DINCH.
Source: Toxics Use Reduction Institute


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Hub Last Updated: 5/21/2015