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Batteries / Cadmium / California / Cathode ray tubes / Certification / China / Computer industry / Computers / Consumer education / Deposits / Economic analysis / Economics / Electronic apparatus and appliances / Electronic components / Electroplating / Energy consumption / Environmental management / Europe / Fluorescent lighting / Fossil fuels / Hazardous waste / Health effects / Hexavalent chromium / Integrated circuits / Labor / Land disposal / Laws and legislation / Leaching / Lead / Life cycle assessment / Maine / Manufacturing processes / Maryland / Materials handling / Mercury / Nonprofit organizations / Plastics / Pollution / Pollution prevention / Printed circuit boards / Processing / Recycled products / Recycling (Waste, etc.) / Standards / States / Statistics / Storage / Television / Tools / Toxicity testing / Waste / Waste reduction

Alphabetical Listing of Reference Documents by Title
NOTE: [PDF] links require Acrobat Reader from Adobe.

Characterization of Lead Leachability from Cathode Ray Tubes Using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure [PDF]
Abstract: A characterization of 36 CRTs were processed and analyzed for lead using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). An average concentration of 18.5 mg/L lead was found, with the most significant portion in the frit seal, found in the funnel portion of color CRTs. This exceeds the regulatory limit of 5.0 mg/L.
Source: The William W. Bill Hinkley Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management, University of Florida

Directive 2002/95/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council [PDF]
Abstract: Text of the directive that restricts use of certain hazardous substances in the manufacturing of electronic equipment. This directive states that new electrical and electronic equipment put on the market after July 1, 2006, shall not contain lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, polybrominated biphenyls (PBB), or polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE).
Source: Official Journal of the European Union

E-waste Report: Determination of Regulated Elements in Seven Types of Discarded Consumer Electronic Products [PDF]
Abstract: Seven electronic product types (microwave ovens, VCRs, printers, CPUs, cell phones, telephones, and radios) were tested to determine total and extractable concentrations of regulated elements for comparison with hazardous waste criteria. Results indicate that all product types tested clearly exceeded at least one hazardous waste criterion. Lead was the most common element exceeding its limit.
Source: Hazardous Material Laboratory, California Department of Toxic Substances Control

Life-Cycle Assessment of Desktop Computer Displays: Summary of Results
Abstract: Assessment of the life-cycle environmental impacts of two technologies that can be used for desktop computer displays: the cathode ray tube (CRT) and active-matrix liquid crystal display (LCD). CRTs are found to have greater life-cycle impact than LCDs in 17 of 20 categories. Energy generation and use in the CRT life cycle is the largest contributor in almost all impact categories. LCDs have about 4% of the lead found in CRTs.
Source: U.S. EPA, Design for the Environment (DfE)


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Hub Last Updated: 10/23/2006