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Table of Contents
Background and Overview
Reasons for Change
P2 Opportunities
Corporate and Non-Profit Initiatives
Options for E-Waste
Where to go for Help
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Batteries / Cadmium / California / Cathode ray tubes / Certification / China / Computer industry / Computers / Consumer education / Deposits / Economic analysis / Economics / Electronic apparatus and appliances / Electronic components / Electroplating / Energy consumption / Environmental management / Europe / Fluorescent lighting / Fossil fuels / Hazardous waste / Health effects / Hexavalent chromium / Integrated circuits / Labor / Land disposal / Laws and legislation / Leaching / Lead / Life cycle assessment / Maine / Manufacturing processes / Maryland / Materials handling / Mercury / Nonprofit organizations / Plastics / Pollution / Pollution prevention / Printed circuit boards / Processing / Recycled products / Recycling (Waste, etc.) / Standards / States / Statistics / Storage / Television / Tools / Toxicity testing / Waste / Waste reduction

Alphabetical Listing of Reference Documents by Title
NOTE: [PDF] links require Acrobat Reader from Adobe.

5R Process Flow Diagram
Abstract: A series of slides that shows how computers and electronic equipment is demanufactured by the 5R company, with materials being reclaimed or reused.
Source: 5R Processors Ltd

Apple Offers Free Computer Take-Back Program
Abstract: News release from Apple company, outlining their program of recycling old computers with the purchase of a new Macintosh system beginning in June 2006.
Source: Apple

Characterization of Lead Leachability from Cathode Ray Tubes Using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure [PDF]
Abstract: A characterization of 36 CRTs were processed and analyzed for lead using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). An average concentration of 18.5 mg/L lead was found, with the most significant portion in the frit seal, found in the funnel portion of color CRTs. This exceeds the regulatory limit of 5.0 mg/L.
Source: The William W. Bill Hinkley Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management, University of Florida

Clean Computer Campaign [PDF]
Abstract: Web site that covers high-tech industry impacts on community, worker, and environmental health. Clean computer campaign includes "report cards" on environmental progress of computer and electronic companies, policy summaries, and information on recycling, green design, flame retardants, European directives, and e- waste. The coalition is a grassroots organization based in San Jose, California. Web site includes resources on sustainable production, sustainable water, environmental justice, and human health impacts.
Source: Silicone Valley Toxics Coalition

Comparison of State Laws on Electronics Recycling [PDF]
Abstract: Compares aspects of electronics recycling laws from California, Maine, Maryland, and Washington.
Source: Computer Take-Back Campaign

Computers and the Environment: Understanding and Managing Their Impacts
Abstract: This study assesses environmental impacts associated with personal computers, their manufacture, purchase, use, and disposal. It includes an assessment of total fossil fuels used to make a computer (ten times the weight of the computer, compared to an automobile or refrigerator, which use approximately their equivalent weight in fuel). Consideration is given to the most effective way to implement the European Union recycling standards, and decisions by consumers are addressed.
Source: book by Ruediger Kuehr and Eric Williams, published by Kluwer Academic Publishers

Computers, E-Waste, and Product Stewardship: Is California Ready for the Challenge? [PDF]
Abstract: The report examines six policy options which could catalyze creation of a system of extended product responsibility for computers, through feedback mechanisms intended to foster better up-front design for environmental considerations. Economic models proposed could provide seed monies for infrastructure development.
Source: Global Futures Foundation/USEPA: Computers and E-Waste

Current Electronics Recycling Laws
Abstract: Current electronics recycling laws in effect are summarized from states and federal. Links to the text of the legislation is provided.
Source: National Center for Electronics Recycling (NCER)

Easier Recycling of Cathode Ray Tubes
Abstract: Fact sheet describing EPA Office of Solid Wastes streamlined management of cathode ray tubes (CRTs), allowing them to be safely stored (up to one year) and properly transported for recycling without being considered hazardous waste.
Source: U.S. EPA, Office of Solid Waste

Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool (EPEAT)
Abstract: A Web-based procurement tool to help institutional purchasers in public and private sectors evaluate, compare, and select desktop computers, notebooks, and monitors based on their environmental attributes. Manufacturers register their products based on specific environmental criteria. Products meeting the minimum standard are ranked as bronze, silver, or gold, based on additional, optional criteria they meet. EPEAT is multi- stakeholder, funded by EPA, and managed by the non-profit Zero Waste Alliance.
Source: Zero Waste Alliance

Electronic Waste Recycling Act of 2003: Covered Electronic Waste Payment System (SB 20/SB 50)
Abstract: A Web page summarizing the Electronic Waste Recycling Act in California, providing links to the full text of the bill, information about the electronic waste recycling fee, payments, and qualified entities.
Source: California Integrated Waste Management Board

Electronic Waste; 1610; Legislation in Maine
Abstract: Text of the Maine electronics recycling bill.
Source: Maine State Legislature

Electronics Recycling Bills in Play 2006
Abstract: A table comparing bills in states and regions, noting whether they are just proposed or have been passed. Comparisons are of "take-back bills." ARF (advanced recycling fees) where consumers pay extra fees when they purchase certain products, which is used for recycling), study bills, and disposal bans.
Source: Computer Take-Back Campaign

Electronics Reuse and Recycling [PDF]
Abstract: A manual that addresses reasons for proper management of electronic wastes, including regulatory obligations, how to improve future acquisitions, opportunities for manufacturers, and actions being taken by governments.
Source: EPA Waste Wise

Abstract: Web site is a partnership among government, manufacturers, retailers, and the environmental community to provide guidance about electronic waste. It includes information about the e-waste recycling fee being collected in California with purchase of new equipment and about being an e-waste collector, recycler, or seller in California.
Source: California Integrated Waste Management Board

Extended Producer Responsibility: A Legislative Model
Abstract: Summary of extended producer responsibility for several markets.
Source: Californians Against Waste

Guidelines for the Procurement, Use, and End-of-Life Management of Electronic Equipment [PDF]
Abstract: Guidance document to help California state agencies reduce costs and environmental impacts, and improve the efficiency of the procurement, use, and end-of- life (EOL) management of electronic equipment.
Source: California Integrated Waste Management Board.

HR 1165, National Computer Recycling Act
Abstract: This bill, introduced in the U.S. House, March 6, 2003, would establish a grant and fee program through the U.S. EPA to encourage and promote recycling of used computers and promote development of a national infrastructure for recycling of used computers.
Source: Library of Congress, Thomas

HR 425, National Computer Recycling Act
Abstract: This bill, introduced January 26, 2005, into the U.S. House of Representatives would establish a grant and fee program through the U.S. EPA to encourage and promote recycling of used computers and promote development of a national infrastructure for recycling of used computers.
Source: Library of Congress, Thomas

IAER Certified Electronics Recycler
Abstract: The International Association of Electronics Recyclers certification standard is a comprehensive set of requirements that includes third-party audits of electronics recycling facilities to achieve the designation of Certified Electronics Recycler.
Source: International Association of Electronics Recyclers

IBM Environment
Abstract: Web page provides links to various aspects of IBM's environmental policies and programs, including their product recycling program. The PC Recycling Service allows consumers and businesses to recycle any manufacturer's personal computer (PC) for $29.99, including shipping.
Source: IBM

IBM Launches World's First Desktop PC with 100 % Recycled Plastic Resin
Abstract: Press release from March 1, 1999, announcing IBM's use of recycled resin in a new desktop computer.
Source: IBM

Introduced Electronic Waste Legislation 2003-2004
Abstract: A table of information about legislation that has been introduced in various state legislatures, dealing with recycling of electronic waste.
Source: National Caucus of Environmental Legislators

Life-Cycle Assessment of Desktop Computer Displays: Summary of Results
Abstract: Assessment of the life-cycle environmental impacts of two technologies that can be used for desktop computer displays: the cathode ray tube (CRT) and active-matrix liquid crystal display (LCD). CRTs are found to have greater life-cycle impact than LCDs in 17 of 20 categories. Energy generation and use in the CRT life cycle is the largest contributor in almost all impact categories. LCDs have about 4% of the lead found in CRTs.
Source: U.S. EPA, Design for the Environment (DfE)

Maryland Statewide Computer Recycling Pilot Program, HB 575
Abstract: Authorizing a county to address methods for the separate collection and recycling of computers in a specified recycling plan; establishing the Statewide Computer Recycling Pilot Program in the Department of the Environment; requiring the Office of Recycling in the Department to administer the Program; requiring, on or after specified dates, specified computer manufacturers to submit a specified registration and fee; etc.
Source: Maryland General Assembly

Midwest Regional Electronic Waste Recycling Policy Initiative
Abstract: Several Midwestern states have joined in a regional initiative to develop a consistent and unified approach for managing waste electronics. The effort is similar to the Northeast Regional Electronics Management Project and builds on model legislation developed through their efforts.
Source: Minnesota Office of Environmental Assistance

Model Electronic Recycling Legislation [PDF]
Abstract: An act to establish a comprehensive recycling system that ensures the safe and environmentally sound management of electronic devices and components, and encourages design of electronic devises and components that are less toxic and more recyclable; and promotes development of a statewide infrastructure for collection and recycling of end-of-life electronics.
Source: The Council of State Governments/Eastern Regional Conference; The Northeast Recycling Council, Inc.

Plug-In To eCycling
Abstract: Consumer electronics recycling campaign sponsored by EPA's Resource Conservation Challenge. Web site features manufacturers and retailers who participate in electronics recycling, pilot recycling projects, and other resources.
Source: EPA

Public-Private Initiatives, Product Stewardship
Abstract: The Web page contains a link to various public and private partnerships and initiatives that strive to achieve a shared-responsibility model for managing electronics.
Source: U.S. EPA, Resource Conservation Challenge, Product Stewardship

Recycling Programs at Dell
Abstract: A listing of options for donating or recycling computers. Recycling pick-up at your home is free with a new Dell purchase or available for $10 otherwise. The site includes several international recycling links.
Source: Dell

Recycling Used Electronics, Report on Minnesota's Demonstration Project [PDF]
Abstract: This report summarizes a public/private effort in 1999 and 2000 to identify costs and barriers to recycling used electronic products. It includes characterization of the consumer waste electronics stream; 700 tons of waste electronics were collected in three months at 64 collection sites. Details about conducting the collection events are included.
Source: Minnesota Office of Environmental Assistance

Sony and the Global Environment
Abstract: Report contains the history of environmental activities at Sony.
Source: Sony

Tool Kit for Setting Up Electronics Recycling Programs [PDF]
Abstract: A 42-page tool kit on beginning and operating an electronics collection program, both as a special collection and an ongoing program.
Source: Northeast Recycling Council, Inc.

U.S. EPA Electronics Reuse and Recycling, publication EPA530-N-00-007
Abstract: Information about proper disposal of electronic waste, focusing on reuse and recycling. It includes several case "anecdotes" and covers regulatory obligations, also.
Source: U.S. EPA, Solid Waste and Emergency Response

Universal Waste
Abstract: Fact sheet on universal wastes in California that cannot be disposed in the trash, including fluorescent lamps, cathode ray tubes (CRTs), instruments that contain mercury, batteries, and others.
Source: California Integrated Waste Management Board


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Hub Last Updated: 10/23/2006