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Meat Processing: Complete List of Reference Documents
Table of Contents
Background and Overview
Operations
P2 Opportunities
Case Studies
Environmental Impacts
Where To Go for P2 Help
Acknowledgements
Complete List of Links

Browse by Keyword
Beef industry / Fishery processing / Food industry and trade / Meat industry and trade / Poultry / Slaughtering and slaughter houses / Swine

Browse by Resource Type
Article/report (7) / Case study/success story (12) / Chapter (1) / Fact sheet/checklist (3) / Manual/handbook/curriculum (6) / Web site (2)

NOTE: [PDF] links require Acrobat Reader from Adobe.


- Article/report -    Top of Page

Composting for Meat Processors (Draft)
Abstract: A brief guide to composting meat products with sources for further reading.
Source: National Center for Manufacturing Sciences
URL: http://ecm.ncms.org/ERI/Meat/howtocompost.htm

Emission Factor Documentation for AP-42 Section 9.5.3 [PDF]
Abstract: This report contains five sections. Following this introduction, Section 2 gives a description of the meat rendering industry including a brief characterization of the industry, an overview of the process, and the identification of emissions and emission control technology. Section 3 describes the literature search, screening of emission source data, and the EPA quality ranking system for emission data and emission factors. Section 4 describes the results of the literature search. Section 5 presents the proposed AP-42 Section 9.5.3, Meat Rendering Plants.
Source: EPA
URL: http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/ap42/ch09/bgdocs/b09s05-3.pdf

Optimization of a Brine Separation Tank [PDF]
Abstract: A study of Washington Crab Company, Washington, NC details the method of separating crab meat from shells, using the flotation process Modified Harris Machine.
Source: North Carolina State University
URL: http://infohouse.p2ric.org/ref/19/18694.pdf

Pollution Prevention Opportunities in the Fish Processing Industry [PDF]
Abstract: This is a Northwest Industry Roundtable Report focusing on Alaska fisheries' goals for waste reduction, including increased processing efficiency, reduction of by-catch, marketable by-products, uses for fish residuals, etc&
Source: Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Research Center
URL: http://infohouse.p2ric.org/ref/02/01130.pdf

Reduction in Waste Load from a Seafood Processing Plant [PDF]
Abstract: A P2 study of a North Carolina menhaden processor showed many opportunities for the reduction of water usage and lost fish material through recommended basic process changes.
Source: Carawan, Roy; et al.
URL: http://infohouse.p2ric.org/ref/13/12933.pdf

Utilisation of Prawn Shell Waste
Abstract: This is a brief description, with photos, of Carapacics Ltd's operation to recover and process prawn/shrimp shell waste into chitin, which has many useful applications
Source: Healy, Michael
URL: http://infohouse.p2ric.org/ref/19/18053.htm

Waste Reduction in Food Processing - A People Management Issue [PDF]
Abstract: This presentation discusses the importance of employee involvement in waste reduction. It discusses training for all levels of workers, from line processor to corporate manager.
Source: Richardson, Stephanie - North Carolina DENR
URL: http://infohouse.p2ric.org/ref/01/00827.pdf


- Case study/success story -    Top of Page

Cleaner Production in Beef Production - Manufacture of Food Products and Beverages #3
Abstract: This study of Australia Meat Holdings identified waste reduction measures in offal cutting, washing and blood processing, and coal boiler performance. Quantified data are included.
Source: UNEP; Environment Australia
URL: http://infohouse.p2ric.org/ref/10/09374.htm

Closed-Cycle Air Refrigeration Technology for Cross-Cutting Applications in Food Processing, Volatile Organic Compound Recovery, and Liquid Natural Gas Industries [PDF]
Abstract: An economic case study of an Advanced Technology Program (ATP) funded project.
Source: National Institute of Standards and Technology
URL: http://www.atp.nist.gov/eao/gcr_819.pdf

Comparison of Manual and Automated Brine Systems for Blue Crab Meat Recovery [PDF]
Abstract: This study of two crab processors in North Carolina discusses the advantages and disadvantages of manual and automated brine systems.
Source: Bebout, Leslie; Green, David P.
URL: http://infohouse.p2ric.org/ref/19/18665.pdf

Evaluation of Packaging Alternatives for Fresh and Pasteurized Crab Meat [PDF]
Abstract: This is a study of the impact of various packaging materials on the quality, shelf life, and safety of fresh and pasteurized crab meat. The effect of different containers, cook temperatures, and cook times on shelf life were examined.
Source: Gates, Keith; et al.
URL: http://infohouse.p2ric.org/ref/19/18663.pdf

Evaluation of Packaging Alternatives for Fresh and Pasteurized Crab Meat [PDF]
Abstract: This is a study of the impact of various packaging materials on the quality, shelf life, and safety of fresh and pasteurized crab meat. The effect of different containers, cook temperatures, and cook times on shelf life were examined.
Source: Gates, Keith; et al.
URL: http://infohouse.p2ric.org/ref/19/18663.pdf

Hillshire Farm and Kahns - Eliminating the Use of Freon and Solvents
Abstract: The company introduced new infrared technology to determine fat/lean meat content of meats, eliminating freon, and method of equipment cleaning was altered.
Source: Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources
URL: http://infohouse.p2ric.org/ref/04/03168.htm

Ozone Applications for Commercial Catfish Processing [PDF]
Abstract: A description of a study at Delta Pride Catfish in Indianola, Mississippi, which showed the success of replacing chlorine with ozone to achieve sanitation in catfish processing and improved shelf life.
Source: Brooks, Gladden; Pierce, Stephen
URL: http://infohouse.p2ric.org/ref/02/01251.pdf

Pollution Prevention Diagnostic - Meat Packing & Processing Plant [PDF]
Abstract: This is a report on a P2 project with several goals, including the recovery of lard, meat and gelatin from cooking broths, reduction of water use and generation of wastewater, and energy conservation.
Source: US AID
URL: http://infohouse.p2ric.org/ref/18/17838.pdf

Reduction in Waste Generation in a Chicken Processing Plant - Manufacture of Food Products and Beverages #46
Abstract: This is a P2 study of Equity, a large chicken nugget processor seeking to reduce BOD loading in wastewater and overall water usage. After waste reduction modifications, many of them very basic, BOD loading was reduced by 50%.
Source: UNEP; Richardson, Stephanie
URL: http://infohouse.p2ric.org/ref/10/09540.htm

Reduction in Waste Load from a Meat Processing Plant - Beef [PDF]
Abstract: A study of Randolph Packing, Asheboro, NC, and its implementation of P2 training programs and process modifications in order to reduce waste load.
Source: Carawan, Roy; Pilkington, Dwain
URL: http://infohouse.p2ric.org/ref/01/00466.pdf

Reduction in Wastes at a Meat Processing Plant - Manufacture Of Food Products and Beverages #17
Abstract: This P2 study of the Parnu Meat Processing Plant in Estonia examines the successful reduction of both water consumption and high BOD-wastewater generation. Quantified data are included.
Source: UNEP; World Environment Center
URL: http://infohouse.p2ric.org/ref/10/09347.htm

Reduction in Wastewater Discharges at a Meat Processing Plant - Manufacture of Food Products and Beverages #16
Abstract: This link is an Environmental Management Centre gateway to a case study of pollution prevention at an Estonian sausage plant focusing on practice and equipment upgrades that significantly reduced water consumption and wastewater generation. Login is required.
Source: World Environment Center; UNEP
URL: http://www.emcentre.com/


- Chapter -    Top of Page

Meat Packing Plants [PDF]
Abstract: This chapter describe the operations involved in beef processing, pork processing, and other meat processing.
Source: EPA
URL: http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/ap42/ch09/final/c9s05-1.pdf


- Fact sheet/checklist -    Top of Page

Effluent Guidelines - Meat and Poultry Products (MPP)
Abstract: A summary of the EPA document proposing new regulations for effluents from meat and poultry processors, with links.
Source: UA EPA
URL: http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/guide/mpp/

Fact Sheet 1: Food Manufacturing Series - General Improvement
Abstract: A checklist of pollution prevention opportunites generally available in the food processing industry, regardless of specific product.
Source: UNEP
URL: http://infohouse.p2ric.org/ref/40/39594.htm

Water Efficiency: Auditing Methodology and Tools [PDF]
Abstract: A facility water audit or survey is the key starting point of any water efficiency program. This chapter provides supplemental information and tools for the water audit team conducting the plant survey
Source: North Carolina Division of Pollution Prevention and Environmental Assistance
URL: http://infohouse.p2ric.org/ref/04/03108.pdf


- Manual/handbook/curriculum -    Top of Page

Cleaner Production Assessment in Meat Processing
Abstract: Focusing on cattle and pig abattoirs, this document is a thorough examination of the environmental impacts of meat processing, offering approaches industry and government can take to minimize those impacts.
Source: UNEP; COWI Consulting
URL: http://infohouse.p2ric.org/ref/24/23224.pdf

Development Document for the Proposed Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Meat and Poultry Products Industry Point Source Category (40 CFR 432)
Abstract: Complete documentation of proposed US EPA regulations to affect the meat processing industry, updating 1970s rules which sought to ensure the meat industry's compliance the Clean Water Act. Includes BATs and process descriptions.
Source: US EPA
URL: http://yosemite.epa.gov/water/owrccatalog.nsf/e673c95b11602f
2385256ae1007279fe/74625dbf4948d5f785256d83004fdb1a!Open
Document

Development Document for the Proposed Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Meat and Poultry Products Industry Point Source Category (40 CFR 432)
Abstract: Complete documentation of proposed US EPA regulations to affect the meat processing industry, updating 1970s rules which sought to ensure the meat industry's compliance the Clean Water Act. Includes BATs and process descriptions.
Source: US EPA
URL: http://yosemite.epa.gov/water/owrccatalog.nsf/e673c95b11602f
2385256ae1007279fe/74625dbf4948d5f785256d83004fdb1a!Open
Document

Draft Document on Best Available Techniques in the Slaughterhouses and Animal By-products Industries [PDF]
Abstract: The European Union IPPC draft document containing detailed information on BATs and compliance strategies for most stages of processing for all meats and meat by-products. Length: 375 pages.
Source: European Commission
URL: http://infohouse.p2ric.org/ref/21/20574.pdf

Draft Document on Best Available Techniques in the Slaughterhouses and Animal By-products Industries [PDF]
Abstract: The European Union IPPC draft document containing detailed information on BATs and compliance strategies for most stages of processing for all meats and meat by-products. Length: 375 pages.
Source: European Commission
URL: http://infohouse.p2ric.org/ref/21/20574.pdf

Water and Wastewater Management in Food Processing - Spinoff on Seafood Water and Wastewater Management [PDF]
Abstract: This 139-page guide discusses the management of water use and waste discharge in seafood processing, covering a whole range of legal, sanitary, environmental and energy issues.
Source: Carawan, Roy; et al.
URL: http://infohouse.p2ric.org/ref/02/01248.pdf


- Web site -    Top of Page

Best References: Food Processing (Meat & Seafood)
Abstract: Across the United States, food processors of red meats and seafoods are facing urgent problems in meeting the requirements of county, state and national regulations for protection of the environment from solid, liquid and airborne wastes. Costs of managing food processing wastes depend heavily on the size and complexity of the operation. Common waste treatment practices include land disposal, anaerobic ponds, aerobic ponds, activated sludge, clarifiers and filtration. This industrial sector presents an understanding of the operations involved in red meat and seafood processing. It includes information on the economic benefits of clean technologies to conserve raw materials, energy and reduce waste. You will also find specific pollution prevention material highlighting opportunities for increased process yield, employee training, water conservation, dry cleanup and wastewater management.
Source:
URL: http://wrrc.p2pays.org/industry/indsectinfo.asp?INDSECT=37

SectorStar.org
Abstract: Contains links to a variety of environmental topics related to the meat processing industry.
Source: SectorStar.org
URL: http://www.sectorstar.org/sector/MeatProcessing/tool.cfm?Doc
ID=314&ProjectID=104

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The Topic Hub™ is a product of the Pollution Prevention Resource Exchange (P2Rx)

The Meat Processing Topic Hub™ was developed by:

Pollution Prevention Resource Exchange
Pollution Prevention Resource Exchange
Contact email: abray@newmoa.org

Hub Last Updated: 3/11/2008