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Printing-Lithography: Reasons for Change
Table of Contents
Background and Overview
Reasons for Change
P2 Opportunities
Key Contacts
Complete List of Links

Essential Links:

Compliance Issues for Lithographic Printers

Regulated Wastes And Outputs from the Offset Lithographic Printing Process

PREPRESS - Imaging Process (Overview)

  Outputs   Regulations
Exposed, waste and out-of-date film Hazardous Waste or Solid Waste
  Scrap Paper   Solid Waste
Air vapors and odors Clean Air Act
  Spent Developer   Clean Water Act
Hazardous Waste or Solid Waste
Spent fixer and silver from film Clean Water Act
Hazardous Waste
  Used rinse water   Clean Water Act
Rags containing solvents
Waste paper from disposable towels
Hazardous Waste or Solid Waste
  Waste solvents   Hazardous Waste
Empty Chemical Containers Solid Waste

PREPRESS - Platemaking Process (Overview)

  Outputs   Regulations
Damaged or unusable plates, waste metals, paper and plastic Hazardous Waste
  Waste silver halides from silver master plates   Solid Waste
Used rinse water Clean Water Act
  Spent plate developer (may contain alcohol)   Clean Water Act
Clean Air Act

PRODUCTION - Printing Process (Overview)

  Outputs   Regulations
Tainted and unused fountain solutions Clean Water Act

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), air emissions from isopropyl alcohol based fountain solution

  Clean Air Act
Hazardous air pollutant (HAPs) air emissions from some glycol based fountain solutions Clean Air Act
  Waste or obsolete ink   Hazardous Waste
Solid Waste
Volatile organic compounds, air emissions from ink Clean Air Act
  Waste water used in cleaning (blanket wash)   Clean Water Act
Waste solvent used in cleaning (blanket wash) Hazardous Waste
Solid Waste from unacceptable prints, make-ready and trim scrap paper Solid Waste
  Rags and towels containing inks and solvents   Hazardous Waste
Solid Waste

FINISHING - Post Press Operations (Overview)

  Outputs   Regulations
Reject prints and trim scrap Solid Waste
  Used boxes and shipping materials   Solid Waste
Rags containing oil, grease, solvents and adhesives Hazardous Waste
Solid Waste
  Waste wash water containing adhesives and/or solvents   Clean Water Act
VOC emissions from solvent based adhesive Clean Air Act
  Solvent parts washers waste   Hazardous Waste

Top Waste Compliance Issues

  • Fixer & developer - Silver can cause a local wastewater treatment infraction; and be a hazardous waste issue
  • Solvents - Total consumed count towards Clean Air Act permit status; can be a hazardous waste
  • Fountain Solution - Total consumed count towards Clean Air Act permit status; can be a hazardous waste
  • Ink - Total consumed count towards Clean Air Act permit status; can be a hazardous waste

Top Things An Inspector Looks For

  • A Hazardous Waste Inspector will look for proper labeling of product and waste containers
  • A Hazardous Waste or a Air Inspector will look for open/closed containers of volatile or hazardous materials
  • A Hazardous Waste, Air, Water or OSHA (different agency) Inspector will look for availability and accessibility of MSDS information
  • A Hazardous Waste Inspector will look for drips, stains, spills and puddles.
  • All inspectors (A Hazardous Waste, Air, Water or OSHA (different agency) Inspector) will look for and question personnel to determine operator knowledge of hazards & risk
  • All inspectors will look for responsible party's knowledge of regulations
  • All inspectors will look at your Compliance history
  • All inspectors will can and may request supporting information for regulatory status
  • All inspectors will keep an eye open for the most common violations (ex. see OSHA's top 10 Violation list)
  • A Hazardous Waste Inspector will look for failure to make a hazardous waste determination
  • A Hazardous Waste Inspector will look for illegal disposal of a hazardous waste
  • A Air Inspector will look for Improper determination of "potential to emit" VOC's, HAPs, and particulates.


The Topic Hub™ is a product of the Pollution Prevention Resource Exchange (P2Rx)

The Printing-Lithography Topic Hub™ was developed by:

Great Lakes Regional Pollution Prevention Roundtable
Great Lakes Regional Pollution Prevention Roundtable
Contact email:

Hub Last Updated: 7/28/2009